Lithium Chloride is a metal halide utilized in a variety of assays to study cell-fate, neurobiology and antiviral properties. In developing Xenopus embryos, Lithium Chloride is observed to exert inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), yet not reported to be a general inhibitor of other protein kinases. These observations may have implications for Lithium Chloride on cell-fate determination in several organisms including Xenopus and Dictyostelium. Additionally, in transfected Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO) stimulated with angiotension II (Ang II), it was noted that Lithium Chloride enhanced the production of inositol triphosphate. Lithium Chloride may also have anti-viral properties as reported by a study that noted that the compound inhibited pseudorabis virus infection in vitro. In Drosophila, it was observed that in the nervous system, Lithium Chloride may have an effect on amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, in glial primary cell cultures, Lithium Chloride has been noted to provide protection against glutamate excitotoxicity by potentially reducing NR1 mRNA, the major N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) sub unit in the cells.