The bafilomycins are a family of macrolide antibiotic derived from Streptomyces griseus. These compounds all appear in the same fermentation and have quite similar biological activity. Bafilomycins are specific inhibitors of vacuolar-type H+- ATPase. The most used bafilomycin is bafilomycin A1.
This is a useful tool as it can prevent the re-acidification of synaptic vesicles once they have undergone exocytosis. Bafilomycin has antibacterial, antifungal, antineoplastic, immuno -suppressive activities. In addition, bafilomycin A1 has antimalarial activity. It has been shown to decrease multi-drug resistance. Bafilomycin B1 has been mentioned as a potential antioseoporotic agent in treating bone lytic diseases.